>>>Again, this is simply copy and paste from my undergrad dissertation. This section served as an overview for biblical uses of the words most often translated 'wrath' (Hebrew words; ‘af, ‘ebrah, haron, quesef, hemah, and Greek words; orge, themos). Conclusions were drawn from this data, systematic evidence, and a detailed exegesis of Rom. 9. ... You may notice by reading it that this section was a particular victim of merciless word-cutting. I shall therefore provide a fuller account of my findings at a later date, that will include all the necessery references as blogger doesn't seem to allow for footnotes.<<<<
3.2.1 Biblical Data
Wrath throughout the Pentateuch is against God’s rebellious people. It is totally-consuming and must be appeased by mediation and sacrifice. God’s wrath is avoided through mediation to make atonement. Wrath is shown in order to show God’s mercy, not because of mans righteousness but His promise.
Wrath is against Israel and other nations. It’s provoked through disobedience to/blasphemy against Yahweh. Wrath is the just response to sin and is avoided through repenting of people and mediating of leaders. Sometimes there is no hope for turning away wrath; God however in His mercy secures a Remnant to receive His promise.
Job sees God’s wrath against Himself as just, even if inexplicable. The Psalms present God’s wrath as just and against the wicked, and appeaseable through repentance. It is never a praised characteristic, His wrath-bringing justice however is.
Isaiah expounds wrath against nations which is mercifully appeased resulting in the fulfilment of His promises. Jeremiah speaks of disobedience and subsequent unavoidable wrath with the other nations. However God subsequently shows mercy to Israel and wrath upon Israel’s oppressive nations, (reflected further in Lamentations.) God’s wrath is primarily against other nations in Ezekiel. God’s character is wrathful throughout the minor-prophets, however is equated with His just day of wrath and His mercy.
Wrath is equated with God’s final judgement against ungodliness and is on those who do not believe in the Son.
God’s wrath is equated with final judgement which some are saved from through God’s mercy.
Hebrews: wrath is the characteristic which prompts God to swear judgement in comparison to those shown mercy. Revelation: God’s wrath is final judgement through the Son on the fallen world whose names are not in the book of life.